The National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg provides patient care, cancer research and cancer prevention united under literally one roof. NCT is divided into the three main departments translational oncology, medical oncology, and preventive oncology. Research activities are organised in the six inter-disciplinary NCT Research Areas molecular diagnostics, immunotherapy, NCT clinical research area, integrative radiation oncology, novel therapeutics, and cancer prevention, control and outcomes. This open structure allows for interdisciplinary approaches between departments and even institutes. Another consequence is the link between basic and applied research that benefits the patient because of the unique feature of the NCT: the translation of results from basic research into innovative diagnostic, therapeutical, and preventional techniques and to offer these new technologies to the patients in the form of clinical trials omitting the usual delay. This way patients benefit from the newest scientific results.